In the state of Minnesota there are 11 sovereign American Indian nations comprised of seven Ojibwe (Chippewa, Anishinaabe) federally recognized reservations, and four Sioux (Dakota) communities. A reservation is land which was retained by American Indians after having ceded large portions of it to the United States government via treaty agreements. Most reservations were created by treaties, but some were created through executive order or by other agreements.
Each Ojibwe reservation was initially established via treaty, and six of the seven reservations were subjected to the Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment act), meaning that the land was subjected to private ownership. The Red Lake reservation maintained its status as closed, which means that all of the land there still legally belongs to all of the tribal members collectively.
The four Sioux communities were originally all one reservation recognized by treaty which spanned 10-miles on each side of the Minnesota River. However, after the US-Dakota Conflict of 1862 Congress rescinded all treaties made with the Sioux, and subsequently people were forced from their homes. The communities as they exist now are small fragments of the original reservation, and were restored to the Sioux in 1886.